Disk with music. Almost like AudioCD works.
Let's assume, you want to send the red line message to the colleague. Today you send mail, the message to social networks or the SMS.
We go down below on stories. What was before? Fax. It was analog of modern e-mail: the message was transferred instantly, got out of the device and was ready to reading.
We go more deeply. There are no fax and phone now too. You send the telegram. Just serious cable nodes were forced out from a bigbon by phones. The exchanges learned news telegrams. The British journalists from the farthest doomsday reported data the teletype. You could telegraph for any person on a meeting which would be carried by the special boy on your mail switch, and then the second boy – from other local switch to the addressee. Almost like cellular network, only a ping is more.
We continue travel. We disconnect electricity, the first logs, first imperceptible appear. Here in Prague full-fledged pneumomail works. Wrote a feather the letter, dried sand and blotting paper, put in a special capsule. Vzhukh! The capsule departed on other end of the city. By the way, if to vykolupat optics from the trunk, it will be possible to arrange pneumomail in a protective tube so partially backward compatibility is saved.
Farther logs become more serious, and risk of damage of packets — above. We pass to primitive biotekh. Ready bioplatforms successfully konkurinut with mechanisms. Carrier pigeons provide quite tolerable speed. However, they are rather stable only within one day of flight, and only being started from a height (for acceleration of primary orientation). Otherwise it is difficult for a pigeon. Navigation without height at it is loaded very long, till a couple of hours. By the night the pigeon includes the subprogramme of search of food and shelter. Predators can attack a pigeon. In general, the good suitable dubbed pigeon quite normally moves along the reconnoitered routes like Paris-Brussels on distances about 1000 kilometers. A log about days.
The pigeon has one fatal shortcoming: it is made not here. In other words, pigeons half-duplex: it is possible to send the report from the unfamiliar district them, and here it is impossible to send a pigeon there where he did not live. But the pigeon is not taken the bearings (unlike radio station) that became a gift for troops of France in 1914. Then took of about 200 thousand pigeons advantage, and let out them even from boards of reconnaissance airplanes.
But again we will return to an era without electricity. Speed of messages "from the center" is limited to the maximum speed of transport. In a final case – the ship and a horse. For messengers on the land special reley-services (CDN) — places with fresh horses are equipped. It allows to reduce time of delivery of a packet approximately by one and a half times.
We plunge more deeply. Information density is lower and lower, the log is higher, MTU is less. Around kings (tsars, khans and so on) "war fog" is densely condensed. What comes in the province at distance of 500 kilometers from a rate – already unclear. To optimum send messengers. Considering risks of interception of letters, their loss, incorrect understanding and so on, it becomes far more profitable to use as carriers of the special people capable not only to transfer the order, but also to answer questions, and then to check. And execution to report without distortions. And so that such person could be trusted.
Pay attention, information was "more smart". Today we send just small minimum and necessary piece of data it seems: "We meet at 18:00 in the Tverskaya" understanding of completeness of control and an opportunity to communicate. Earlier it it would be ringing in advance or the letter with discussion of all parts and plans of B: what to do at 18:30 where precisely a meeting how each other to learn and so on. And at the deepest level of history we send "smart self-organizing information" in the vassal's head with understanding of the purposes of the governor and powers to create everything for their achievement.
Just still it was impossible to be limited to the letter because of the reading off scale paranoia – not to bypass each local node therefore the situation when the governor of area does not see the king of years on ten is quite normal. At the following update of the status it can turn out that cities there, suddenly, already two, and at local "princeling" the army for occupation of your capital is ready. Most the same Mongolian empire was damaged – according to some information the order could go one way on few years (taking into account the messengers who suddenly got poisoned with an arrow and speed of delivery of information on it to a sending point).
As the modern photo, video and a sound looks, you know. Usually, by the way, in applied aspect – as phone shovel. Disks, cartridges, plates and the cereous cylinders for a sound recording do not need to be represented too, probably.
The photo was more interesting earlier. First, popular almost like modern digital photo wet kollodionny process allowed normal excerpts, but demanded to show frames very quickly (so far the leaf did not dry). If you removed the city from the balloon – it was necessary to have laboratory in a basket. Plus any copies as from a film – how many removed, there is so much at you and frames (but a frame it is possible to make a copy of houses once again).
Before there was a slow and kayfny photo on silver sheets – to a heap also exposure was spaces for 40 minutes that generated the whole industry of forks under the head that portrayed not especially moved with it.
Well and still it is worth mentioning such fine genre as the posthumous photo. Was more popular wedding, by the way.
Disclosure of personal data? Please. Here the criminal resists, does not want that he was photographed. Because if the portrait will turn out – it will be identified in the future as not figs to do:
The big brother looks narrowly at him. In society there were real protests against such intervention in private life and for saving of PD.
Such stand "they are searched by militia" turned out here
There are no mailings (even mail) yet. Brodkast becomes the newspaper, a tabloid on a main square or, even earlier, glashaty. As echo: came, took away an update, went home. Or neighbors told. At the same time systems of the emergency notification utilitarianly were placed on churches and similar objects. You will not pass a bell.
Video was born painfully long and, in many respects, thanks to the long bet of two respectable gentlemen who decided to check whether the horse has a "soaring" gallop when all forepaws ahead, and all back – behind. As a result it was necessary to do the first trigger ropes for three tens cameras, to synchronize locks electricity, then to think how quickly to show the received photos.
At first there were slit drums, here such analog of the animated GIF picture on manual draft appeared then:
850 cards in this specific device last for about a minute of viewing of a tango. You twist it hands therefore it is possible to arrange also slow motion. The device is called "мутоскоп". If to thrust such into a box with a coin acceptor, then there will be a training movie as in Bioshok's automatic machines.
Normal letters might contain attachments. Popular means to convey information – spirits on the letter, a lock of hair, a photo and drawings. Souvenir and emotion. By the way, it is not necessary to think that mail limited a traffic. Darwin sent 7591 letters for the life — big such pieces of paper with 2-3 kilobytes of the text and, sometimes, drawings. By the way, the sent letter at you did not remain (there are no typewriters or at least a carbon paper yet).
What then was with players? Here, please, example. By the way, it is possible to regulate the volume of music and it is necessary a door:
And is deeper than it – even not a plate, but 4-bit music on an iron disk with holes
We degrade further. Reading remains only aloud, skill to read "silently" leaves. Now we read as if on the virtual computer in the head, and then it was your speech. To it it was trusted far stronger.
By the way, to a heap – spaces between words – it very much, very much, is very progressive. Earlier they were absolutely excessive.
Reconstruction of the text of times of Ancient Russia. Here at least there are punctuation symbols: even earlier instead of them color letters were used.
Even more deeply in history – and photos vanish. There are only drawings, not always exact – but, at least, allowing to remember and show what cannot be expressed in words. Further away instead of animation sets of figures, for example, from clay are used: from them it is possible to show even the whole great fight of two soldiers in "storyboard". You can buy home one freeze frame, and you can – all collection that it was visible the movements on steps. The main thing not to mix an order. Well and still vase painting – almost complete analog of an Instagram, only on vases.
Further away the entertaining training information (not urgent) turns into the oral epos. As modern psychologists, baizes about inhuman memory of carriers of the epos – a lie found out. To remember the ballad on text half-megabyte – the navel will be untied. Therefore as showed experiences, storytellers remembered key points of a plot and a poetic rhythm. The rhythm allowed to recede from a plot because easily you will not replace proper words not strongly far. However, considering that it almost always was something like a heavyweight hexameter which can be driven in kilometers in real time, additional investigation was required. And, oops, a surprise from cognitive psychologists. It appears, "the same ballad" could differ longwise three times in different execution. But if key points of a plot are saved, then all versions are perceived identically. Just madly, what magic was then the instruction of cmp.
Considering the speed of distribution of information, two natural factors were formed:
- It was easy to save in secret information demanding serious research. It was possible to keep for centuries technologies without fear of copying.
- Update rate of information and other aspects demanded emergence of information centers where it was possible to obtain the necessary data.
Example of the first case – technology of training of Samurais. Just provide that you in clan have a technology of 12 years' trainings which with guarantee does of the soldier almost invincible by most of opponents. 3-4 such soldiers in clan are as an antique nuclear bomb. These technologies were very strictly protected that neighbors did not find out.
I remind, transfer of professions then too was shop or dinastichny – just like that it was very difficult to take and learn something without approach to the necessary people. In any case antiquity, for an example about 15 years ago for me was improbable happiness to find information on the necessary subject at least in the book. At least in regional library. And now we can reach any person on the planet and ask him directly, or find ready material. Complexity – to apprehend information, but not to receive it. Earlier obtaining was the main quest.
Here, look, public DPC of antiquity. More precisely, what from it remained:
It is Apollo's temple in Delphi. Here the knowledge base of Ancient Greece concentrated, and there was a center of settling of the conflicts. There were several basic services. First, there lived predictors who could ask a question as to Google. The answer usually was recursive, but it stopped nobody. Secondly, issues of registration of social information were resolved here – defects were made out, for example. Builders specifically of this TsODa in exchange for a heap of rare marble managed to get to themselves a priority traffic on weddings. Good fellows, the others stood in long line. Further, here concentrated a lot more different people waiting for tests, answers to questions, religious practices. On such object it was possible to gain quickly knowledge from 6-7 adjacent countries. As oral legends were the main information medium, libraries did not play a crucial role in a household and administrative traffic. And, besides, to the emperor to drive in DPC behind calculation of readiness of the country for war (month there, month back, month there) – quite normal practice.
In general, the status "the tsar offline" was rather frequent therefore the cross cybernetic management systems tied on the rights of certain people formed. Information links between the traveling leader and his rate it was necessary to cipher and hide – from here high progress in cryptography and a steganography in antiquity. Well and in paranoia. Decision making systems too – from Veliky Novgorod to Rome acted on height the different institutes of the weighed assessment reminding dialogs of modules of expert systems. You will be in Novgorod – glance in the local Kremlin museum and try to understand system of training and management; you are waited by couple of surprises.
In general, a post began with it. As I published the book (here a post about process on Habré), I wanted to dig slightly more deeply in the market at the same time and to see models of distribution of information last centuries.
And so. The modern code (the book with pages) — it appeared far not at once. Passing clay tablets and well familiar to much kamenyuk with a cuneiform writing, very much I want to pay your attention to the papyrus. This initially white-green piece in the millennia became yellowish, but still continued to bend. And the text was read without distortions. Poorly so to make with modern paper?
The first books were or ritual (religious), or contained useful layfkhak. For example – instructions how to purify water, different medical knowledge and so on. The interface – the rolls similar on structure to the modern one-page websites. Pay attention that the code (pages) can be leafed through to the middle at once, and here the roll can be read only from beginning to end. And still the roll is continuous – there were even horizontal books rolls where on top there were proofs with the text about travel, and on a bottom – "comic book" with travel, such long continuous picture. Very informatively.
On the eskhatokol at the end of work pieces which we would call sotsilny widgets today quite could meet. "Let happiness everyone read accompanies and doubly – rewritten" is the most modest that there could be. Metadata were taken out on the protocol outside of the list; in the Chinese libraries, for example, rolls lay an end face to the hall, and from an end face this protocol hanged down. On fields complaints to the copyist's salary, calculation of cows on credit to Efim and so on could meet.
Rolls could not be very long, and could not be read by pieces (that often was necessary on the same sermons or when reading reference books) – the need for code interfaces so grew. The technology of pages was debugged for centuries: for example, in early releases there were special thongs which did not allow to open the book too widely not to damage cover. Read at an angle 90 degrees, you make thrifty use of culture.
Time of the medieval person was defined not by hours, and the sun. Or bells to a prayer. Minutes, hours, exact time – all this came later and entered absolutely new framework to perception of time. You remember a famous clock on a chain, so popular in England? They were as the cell phone now – with their help it was possible to be guided in the events.
Couple of layfkhak were applied. The first – litanies as time gage. 15 times a prayer are as to the modern person one playlist. The quantity of the said prayers was conveniently fixed on beads, by the way.
The second layfkhak – sinkhropesn. For exact coordination of work of command rhythms with a uniform point of an exhalation were used. "Eh, dubinushka, uuukhny!" is the utilitarian piece allowing to synchronize efforts till 30-50 people. Besides, for oar rowing the special person with a drum or shouting in the necessary rhythm was used. Musicians were appreciated ability to amuse on feasts, but still – practical usefulness in a tiresome hard work. Now the same role is played by the white earphones which are sticking out of the head of the person running in the mornings.
For the obvious reasons of dating sites and card files of "file" on people before special was not. In the Victorian England reference books "Who Is Who" with transfer of all aristocracy with TTH were issued, but it was a little. What is solved now by social networks solved several institutes at once:
- Instead of it was possible apdeytit twitter to go to confess (that is characteristic, the same feelings and the same lack of a privacy as at a photo vykladyvaniye from a yesterday's party).
- Instead of dating sites and social networks there were balls as instruments of cross-pollination. There the whole set of rules – who with whom can communicate who whom approaches and so on. In a degenerate case the cadet could learn to dance three-five years to touch the living woman from the highest estate.
- A role of entertainments was played by different games on secular receptions. Here, for example, almost complete reconstruction of one of them. 3D - a photo (stereo pairs, viewing of ten - another replaced movies) were very popular, played forfeits, different gamblings with rates, games on ability to control emotions and on dexterity. Depending on a historical period and the region both some simple poker, and difficult preference, or in general as it happened in France, pétanque on the street could be the most abrupt game. Besides, golf in England. Of course, there was always a hunting (it as departure on the dacha for the weekend). By the way, pay attention that hunting and game in classical English are called in a word — game.
- Authentication went by means of special procedure of representation until recently. Even earlier, especially in the east, in a name all file "was sewed" – for example, there quite there could be login, the city of a registration, a postfix of marital status, a name of the father, a profession and so on. The European aristocrats had something similar: long names with titles, ownerships and brief information by the nature of. At ancient Slavs and the next people of such colorful names was not, but codes on clothes, on the weapon, transport (for example, the chariot), different household objects were used. The most known type of authentication – color and drawing of a sail to the sea, or color and drawing of an upper shirt on the earth. In a wartime – an avatar coat of arms on a board.
Therefore the following time when you decide that different difficulties are connected with the fact that we have an information society outside and an overload information here, remember, as a century, both two, and five, and back our ancestors had ten the same approximately tools and problems. And even wireless irons.
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