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1 year, 6 months ago
I have a good friend – will name him Anatoly (actually his name is differently, but it is not important). It works in the company which is directly connected with supplies of equipment of world giants IT different there and the telecom industry in a public sector – that is, in other words, with state procurements. We with Anatoly regularly gather behind a glass of beer a cup of tea, and here approximately a month ago we had very interesting conversation. At once to an opredmech its subject: in the field of supplies of equipment in the B2B segment is created tako - about - oye … No, the speech even not about "gray" and "left" schemes, and about – I will not be afraid of this expression – violation of strategic interests of the state.

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Generally, give one after another. Shortly before our next sit-round gathering with Anatoly in "Sheets" there was a curious material. Its essence in the following: government bodies on behalf of the Federal Customs Service very zealously began recently fight against "gray" import of the B2C-equipment – smartphones, tablets and other gadgets. As a result thanks to disclosure of schemes of understating of customs value of devices of "grey" importers stirred up very seriously. And many of them or stopped the activity, or finally and irreversibly "turned white". From it, of course, only it became better for the state: "gray" importers ceased to break laws and to leave from high duties, but began to pay regularly and in full to treasury. From it it became better for the simple people not. Yes, even when budget Chinese (read – "pseudo-Russians") products reached normal consumers with incomplete payment of all encumbrances which are due to the native state, the prices of these products not always were humane. Because the supplier, having saved on the customs duties, not always in proportion reduced the prices of devices for end users (better to put to himself in a pocket more money). But in some cases it is reduction of prices – nevertheless occurred. And now, after "crackdown" by the state, we have less chances to find a "grey" copy of the smartphone "A" or tablet "B" with more pleasant price labels, than at their "white" analogs …

I complained to Anatoly about above described "crackdown" from the favourite state. In reply my friend noticed that supposedly somehow strange all this looks. Though, on the other hand, there is nothing to be surprised here. Our favourite state as always "tears up" first of all the citizens. In the same place, where this "robbery and arbitrary behavior" in relation to the state pocket, the state our favourite for some reason amazingly blindly and passively reigns. It appears, all this "crackdown" in the market of consumer electronics – all this florets-motylechki in comparison with what "flows away" through gray schemes on a field of state deliveries of B2B-solutions. And – that is very important – deliveries of products of the companies which are based in it seems as the sanctions countries. That is the countries officially under the Russian sanctions, and all "the food chain" continues "to milk" safely state structures supplies of equipment from them at the space prices moreover and without payment of the charges and taxes put under the law in state treasury. That is, in fact, as Anatoly speaks, the state is banal deceives itself – and works contrary to own strategic interests.

In a B2B-segment so far nobody especially puts the clamps even in spite of the fact that excess profits from manipulations with the "correct" customs clearance of the equipment are really huge. The people from it are present no advantage as individuals the similar equipment – for example, servers – do not buy. To whom there is an advantage? Well, think. I give the hint: to officials who supervise state procurements (on a comfortable old age!), to suppliers (offshore accounts in IT – still regulation), well and, of course, to vendors of this equipment. As I told above, on the whole – to the large international companies from the "podsantskionny" partner countries like the USA. Anatoly gave a situation with servers as an example. Deliveries in the majority of tenders go at the price MANY TIMES exceeding selling prices of vendors. And it besides that servers to Russia in large part not as servers, and as spare parts for this purpose are delivered. Or as normal "PCs".

I so was interested in this subject that I threw a subject of a customs mukhlezh in the field of "consumer" smartphones / tablets / other gadgets and began to dig data on the Internet on a situation with servers in the B2B market. The benefit a customs statistics appeared to be got not so difficult. And in a compartment with it and market analytics. You watch what turned out:

Customs base
Shows how many servers are imported on the territory of the Russian Federation as servers
Data of analysts of IDC
Shows how many servers are put-is really sold in the market

             2013

IBM
 About 21 000 pieces
 About 32 200 pieces
Cisco
 About 5 300 pieces
 About 5 300 pieces
HP
 About 35 000 pieces
 About 50 000 pieces

             2014

IBM
 About 12 400 pieces
 About 32 000 pieces
Cisco
 About 3 500 pieces
About 8 500 pieces
HP
 About 30 000 pieces
 About 38 000 pieces

             2015 (first half)

IBM
 About 4 000 pieces
About 8 500 pieces
Cisco
About 750 pieces
 About 4 000 pieces
HP
 About 9 500 pieces
 About 15 000 pieces

It is short-sighted to trust analytics from IDC for 100%, of course. And still digits take analytical offices not from the head, researches are conducted, data from the companies, distributors (both foreign, and domestic) and so on are analyzed. As a result of, of course, digit can differ from real, but it is not really considerable. On the market of smartphones I can tell that analysts are mistaken a maximum of percent for 20-30%. And definitely not by one and a half times, as, for example, in a case with IBM in 2013 or in general by 5 (five) times, as with Cisco in 2015.

Anatoly right there explained to me – from where there are such discrepancies in digits. The simplest way "to be lost" in customs base – to take servers under other nomenclature of goods subject to foreign trade code. Let's tell how normal "PCs". Or as ZAPCHASTI for servers or "PCs". As servers an essence – the difficult equipment, the ordinary staff of customs even if will open the container with sending (that becomes very extremely seldom!), all the same will not be able even close to evaluate – what is it actually. Whether servers worth 10 thousand dollars, whether "PCs" worth 200 of "green". Well and if to carry the body separately from payments, nobody stirs servers in general as to declare "rassypukha".

And further we look. The VAT at us 18%, that is if 1 000 servers are taken as the server (with the average price of 1200 dollars), then we receive 15 199 920,00 rub of receipts in the budget at dollar rate 70,37. If to carry them as PCs with the price to 300 dollars, then payments will be "only" 3 799 980,00 rubles. And, judging by the dug data in the form of statistics of analysts, in a year from 30 to 50% of the market so "vanish".

At the same time declaring on other nomenclatures of goods subject to foreign trade codes is an only one widespread method of manipulations at customs. There is one more popular "лайфхак" – understating of customs value. That is it is possible to request an invoice with the price underestimated several times from the foreign supplier. In reality the goods for $ 10 000 are bought, and in an invoice it is written – by agreement – $ 2 000. In the market of smartphones up to last year's "cleanings" (and according to some information and now, though not in such volumes as a year ago) such scheme was used nearly by a third of all suppliers of smartphones. Especially so-called "brands phony companies". For example, I was told not so long ago about a case when one not really popular (more definitely, to nobody especially not the known brand) this year put about 100 000 inexpensive smartphones from China, having declared them at customs with cost – attention! – 2 dollars! Well, what "недосмартфон" would not be delivered, it can cost 2 dollars only in one case – if in it there is neither payment, nor the accumulator, nor the screen. Even normal button phones dialing programs – and those cost at factories in China at least 10 dollars.

Alas, at all respect for the customs officer's profession, they cannot thoroughly understand in all that quirky businessmen – from pampers to servers – and most often they carry or trust the "lime" invoices provided to them, or adjust the specified cost on the "amateurish" understanding of the cost of these or those goods.

The situation turns out at the same time both sad, and ridiculous. In recent months in Russia only also speak about import substitution and need to reduce turnovers of cooperation with bigwigs world oligarchy large foreign (first of all – American) the companies. At the same time, as you can see, steadily bright "green light" in the field of "depriving" of money at our distressful state is provided to these most American companies. According to Anatoly, a condition of tenders at state procurements in many companies (especially not that, which purely state, and with a big share of the state capital, but, it seems, nevertheless private), most often either opaque, or translucent (well it when the winner is known already at a stage of preparation of tender documentation). And price labels usually strongly above price labels in the free market if the same servers from some system integrator were bought through by business firm. Therefore, at supplies of equipment in these purchases using the above described schemes the state, on the one hand, considerably loses on the underpaid duties and charges. On the other hand, someone, obviously, receives excess profits. Which flow away clear where – on "interest" of the corresponding persons organizing tenders. Yes into offshore accounts of Russians "shakher-makher" - suppliers. Naturally, it is unlikely all this magnificent chain would be possible without acquiescence of large international corporations (from them this "acquiescence" as samolichno vendors, as a rule, import nothing into Russia is required - it is an ancestral lands of system integrators yes of distributors). For them the main thing that their products reach to tenders. And as well as how much is the case tenth. The main thing that plans of headquarters are implemented, and local managers got the quarter awards.

According to Anatoly, similar practice is regulation not only in a segment of servers. His company in the same way "works" in other segments living with purchase and sale in tenders of the large B2B-equipment of top global manufacturers. For example, automatic telephone exchange and telecommunication servers, industrial routers, base stations for mobile network operators and other similar hi-tech "krupnyak".

Well what to tell? It is pleasant that our state tries to bring order to deliveries of IT and telecom products to our market. But it is surprising that it begins with fight against gray importers of cheap phones and other gadgets. So this fight, in fact, harms only the normal ordinary citizens forced to fork up for risen in price govnosmartfon. And at the same time the state closes eyes at all to this shadow "Klondike" which is still sawn in a B2B-segment. And it is not just about an underpay of some duties cheap in essence here, and about violation of strategic interests of the state.

P.S. While "dug" a subject, came across such article besides in Sheets. Cisco phases down production of IP phones in Russia. Interestingly, according to what schemes will carry "purely" import IP phones from there again? After all in case of the Russian production to manipulate with the cost of the put products, it seems to me, goraaazdo it is more difficult: here it, production, in Russia, clearly. However, this question, most likely, rhetorical …

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