Developers Club geek daily blog

1 year ago
When you work in a hosting company most of friends and acquaintances, all the issues concerning a hosting are resolved through you. It allows to be in a trend of the last innovations, and also not only to increase the skills, but also to keep them in a tone. As soon as special problems of children became difficult to be solved on a hosting server, as a rule due to the lack of an opportunity to set necessary software for work of this or that script, I thought of the inexpensive virtual server at once, especially they at us appeared. Also we understood that it will be simpler to work with the server via the convenient web interface, and the good control bar will be as-@-as, by the way. And if it is also free, then we will be only in plus. Without hesitation, opened the browser and began to google free control bars a hosting.
Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta
Understanding that studying of everyone will demand time, I decided to ask also council our experienced administrator on what I received the short answer:
You look towards Vesta.
For my part there was an attempt to pay its attention that there are also other free products:
Yes, heard 
, and in general they are enough: Ajenti, CentOS Web Panel, etc.
But the head of technical department allowed expect the answer enough:
These are not really popular in our circles.
Here so there was my first acquaintance to one of the most popular free control bars a hosting in a RuNet — Vesta CP. I would like to tell you as the solution of objectives leads not only to writing of tutorials, but also allows to get acquainted with interesting people who put the heart and soul in that business which are really brought to them by pleasure. And as a result, we receive the remarkable software product. Well unless it is not wonderful? Pleasant and constructive to you readings …

Preface


As the Vesta panel and really for me was unfamiliar I began to collect information. Habrakhabr then even thought of the fact that else it is possible to tell about this panel as on it in a RuNet it is really enough material found several quite good publications, including on a resource. But as everything can change one conversation!? After reading of good article I decided to write to the author and to learn his opinion not only on the Vesta panel, but also in general about a niche of free control bars a hosting. Did not keep itself to wait for the answer to my surprise long, and dialog continues to last and now … A lot of things managed to be discussed, but it was only the small part of what it is necessary to talk about. Yes, most likely it is material for separate article, but we will not run beforehand and we will return to the Vesta panel.

Installation


I will not change the habits — I will install on the virtual server CentOS (also the panel has support of Debian, Ubuntu) and I will be connected to it on SSH. For this purpose, if you use MacBook, we start the Terminal and we enter the following command:

ssh root@xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx

We confirm connection, we specify the password of the superuser, and after all these actions we get to the console. If you the user of Windows, then use the PuTTY terminal emulator for work with the server.

Further we load on the server necessary installation files by means of command:

curl -O http://vestacp.com/pub/vst-install.sh

Before starting the installation process, it would be desirable to report that the installer of a panel automatically classifies servers on the following 4th groups:

  • micro — less than 1 GB of the RAM;
  • small — less than 3 GB of the RAM;
  • medium — less than 7 GB of the RAM;
  • large — more than 7 GB of the RAM.

Depending on technical characteristics of your server, in this case quantity of random access memory, the installer will automatically make installation of a certain set of packets and configs of the Vesta panel. For example, the packet of antiviruses will correctly work (according to recommendations of developers) starting with the medium version, and support of PHP cgi, in turn, is available to all server group except micro. But nothing prevents you to set the missing software manually.

We continue installation process of a panel, for this purpose we start a script by means of command:

bash vst-install.sh

On the screen you have to receive the following message:

_|      _|  _|_|_|_|    _|_|_|  _|_|_|_|_|    _|_|
 _|      _|  _|        _|            _|      _|    _|
 _|      _|  _|_|_|      _|_|        _|      _|_|_|_|
   _|  _|    _|              _|      _|      _|    _|
     _|      _|_|_|_|  _|_|_|        _|      _|    _|

                                  Vesta Control Panel



Following software will be installed on your system:
   - Nginx Web Server
   - Apache Web Server (as backend)
   - Bind DNS Server
   - Exim mail server
   - Dovecot POP3/IMAP Server
   - MySQL Database Server
   - Vsftpd FTP Server
   - Iptables Firewall + Fail2Ban


Would you like to continue [y/n]:

We confirm the actions by means of a key y (yes). Further it will be necessary to specify the email:

Please enter admin email address: xxxxxxxxxx@domain.com

Then the fitter can request to enter host name:

Please enter FQDN hostname [XXXX1669]: xx1669.ua-hosting.company

Installation process can is taken about 15 minutes. Running a little forward, it would be desirable to tell that if you install the Vesta panel on one server, then input of all necessary data during installation should not take a lot of time. But if you need to prepare several tens servers with this panel, quite recently one of our clients set such task, then we advise to start an installation script with a key of h (help):

bash vst-install.sh -h

And to study the complete list of available options:

Usage: vst-install-rhel.sh [OPTIONS]
  -a, --apache            Install Apache        [yes|no]  default: yes
  -n, --nginx             Install Nginx         [yes|no]  default: yes
  -w, --phpfpm            Install PHP-FPM       [yes|no]  default: no
  -v, --vsftpd            Install Vsftpd        [yes|no]  default: yes
  -j, --proftpd           Install ProFTPD       [yes|no]  default: no
  -k, --named             Install Bind          [yes|no]  default: yes
  -m, --mysql             Install MySQL         [yes|no]  default: yes
  -g, --postgresql        Install PostgreSQL    [yes|no]  default: no
  -d, --mongodb           Install MongoDB       [yes|no]  unsupported
  -x, --exim              Install Exim          [yes|no]  default: yes
  -z, --dovecot           Install Dovecot       [yes|no]  default: yes
  -c, --clamav            Install ClamAV        [yes|no]  default: yes
  -t, --spamassassin      Install SpamAssassin  [yes|no]  default: yes
  -i, --iptables          Install Iptables      [yes|no]  default: yes
  -b, --fail2ban          Install Fail2ban      [yes|no]  default: yes
  -r, --remi              Install Remi repo     [yes|no]  default: yes
  -q, --quota             Filesystem Quota      [yes|no]  default: no
  -l, --lang              Default language                default: en
  -y, --interactive       Interactive install   [yes|no]  default: yes
  -s, --hostname          Set hostname
  -e, --email             Set admin email
  -p, --password          Set admin password
  -f, --force             Force installation
  -h, --help              Print this help

Which, in turn, will allow to make the installation "under", and also will help to accelerate process of setup of the whole "vehicle fleet of machines". The easiest way to miss input of optional data during installation of a panel is to deactivate an interactive mode, as a result to start an installation script with a key of y (interactive) and the No. parameter.

bash vst-install.sh -y no

If there is also a desire to independently set the password of access to a panel, then add a key of p (password) with the version of the password:

bash vst-install.sh -y no -p xxxxxxxxx

For those users to whom not in a high to carry out "blamestorming session" to consoles developers made a convenient web configurator of options that considerably simplifies process of custom installation. Just in the section Advanced Install Settings we set necessary parameters then we click Generate Install Command and we insert already ready command into the console. How to you such option of installation?

After completion of installation the following message will be displayed:

 _|      _|  _|_|_|_|    _|_|_|  _|_|_|_|_|    _|_|   
 _|      _|  _|        _|            _|      _|    _| 
 _|      _|  _|_|_|      _|_|        _|      _|_|_|_| 
   _|  _|    _|              _|      _|      _|    _| 
     _|      _|_|_|_|  _|_|_|        _|      _|    _| 


Congratulations, you have just successfully installed Vesta Control Panel

    https://xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:8083
    username: admin
    password: xxxxxxxxxx

Web interface


Well, you are ready to a meeting with "goddess"? Then we open the browser and we are authorized in a panel. I pay your attention that a user name — admin.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

Right after an input we get on a page of USER and we see information meanwhile on the only thing of the user of admin with the rights of the system administrator. If it is more pleasant to someone to work with the Russian interface, then we open settings of the user of admin and in the field of Language we select necessary language. We do not forget to click Save to save changes.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

Also the hot keys (SHORTCUTS) which simplify navigation according to the menu very much help with work with a panel and allow to make managements by means of the keyboard. For opening of the list of all available SHORTCUTS use a key h on the keyboard or one of buttons in the screen lower right corner.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

Users


For safety increase developers do not recommend to exercise control of the websites from under the user of admin therefore let's create the new user. We pass into the USER menu and we press the green round button with plus (to ADD the ACCOUNT). We do not forget that it can also be done by means of the hot keys, the previous screenshot has to prompt that with it we will be helped by a key — a.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

Here you can specify an interface language for the user, and also its mailbox to which accesses will be sent. After filling of necessary fields, we click "to Add". As a result in the USER menu we will have already two users and having used the ENTER AS key we can be authorized under the user necessary to us. It should be added that developers took care of "big migration of the people" and gave an opportunity of transfer of users from one server on another.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

Domains


Now we can add the website. For this purpose we pass into the WEB menu and by means of a key a we cause a window in which we fill in necessary data.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

At once I recommend to open ADDITIONAL OPTIONS and to activate the additional FTP account, having filled the corresponding fields. And for fans of statistics there is also a possibility of connection of your resource to Webalizer or AWStats.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

Databases


Queue came to create the database (D) for your project. Everything is quite simple — we go to the DB menu and again by means of the burning key a we cause a window where we fill necessary fields.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

We do not forget to save all entered data by means of the Add button. Further you can quietly fill in the necessary CMS or a script on which your project will "turn" on a hosting and to carry out additional setup for release of the website in production.

Administration of MySQL DBMS is performed by means of a web application of phpMyAdmin which button of start will appear in the DB menu right after creation of at least one DB.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

Also the Vesta panel allows to place a DB on a remote server as option it is possible to construct a solution of several Web servers and to perform their service by means of one more productive server.

Mail


Here on additional setup it is possible to stop in more detail, and, perhaps, we will begin with mail, to be exact — with setup of the mail domain. If we pass into the MAIL menu, then we will see that we already have a mail domain which was created automatically together with adding of the domain in a panel.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

When editing data of this domain pay, please, attention that in the field "Mail Trap" you at will can specify the mail account (not necessarily local) where mail from nonexistent accounts will be redirected. By default there file/dev/null is specified that means only one — all arriving mail has to be removed.

Went further, queue came to create a mailbox. We select the necessary mail domain and we click to ADD the ACCOUNT.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

Here you can open a tab ADDITIONAL OPTIONS and specify a quota by the mailbox size in MB, and also the account for readdressing of mail. As usual we save the specified data with the help of the Add button.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

For work with e-mail the client of Roundcube which button (to OPEN WEB MAIL) to become available in the MAIL menu right after an institution in a panel at least of one mail domain is used.

DNS


Probably the DNS setup is one of the most difficult moments of work with a control bar as a hosting for naive users. But also here the design team tried to simplify as much as possible a task, having created a template. After we will make the necessary settings on the party of the logger of domain name, it is necessary in the DNS menu for the specific domain to click to EDIT.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

And in the field the Template to select child-ns, and then to save changes.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

Then from under the user of admin to come into the menu Packets.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

And to edit default packet, having specified at the same time name servers of the domain.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

Also creation of DNS of a cluster is one of opportunities of a panel that will allow zones to be copied automatically on other servers.

Cron


In the section of the CRON menu it is possible to study all list of tasks and in case of need to make changes to it (to add/delete/block a task).

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

Backup


The Vesta control bar has the convenient web interface for setup of backup for remote FTP/SFTP the server. For this purpose we pass into the BACKUP menu and by means of a key a we start creation of new archive, on the screen the following message will be displayed:

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

After you receive the notification on the mailbox, return to this menu and by means of the DOWNLOAD button save a backup on the local computer. Also this functionality is available from the console.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

Safety


As you can already noticed, the panel has fayervol, and also support of Fail2ban which will automatically stop selection of passwords for different protocols (FTP, SSH), and including to the Vesta panel. For setup of a fayervol it is necessary to select the corresponding menu item from under the user of admin.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

Where, by means of available functionality, there is an opportunity to carry out necessary setup including for Fail2ban.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

Reports


In the Vesta control bar collecting of statistics and different data which can help you with the analysis of operation of your server is very well implemented. For example in the Server You menu you can look what random access memory capacity consumes this or that process.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

Also, if you want to study indicators of the processor(s), memories, networks, a disk(s), etc., then will be able to obtain more unrolled data on different parameters: technical characteristics of the server what requests are sent for the Web server and in a DB, are an opportunity to make the report on the sent letters and many other things.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

You should not forget about production schedules which can also help you with the analysis of operation of the server.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

And for those to whom it is not enough there is a possibility of viewing of logs of domains alive — the WEB menu, the LOOK at LOGI button.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

API


In the Vesta panel there is API which can be used as a framework for creation of own interfaces. For example you can create a site of blogs or online stores. As developers told me, several their large customers use a panel thus.

Updates


Updates of the Vesta control bar can automatically take place, but this function is by default turned off. All control of updates is exercised through the corresponding menu.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

When there is an updating, packets in this section of the menu begin to be highlighted red, and also the Update button appears. If necessary you do one cliques and everything is ready.

It is a little patience and I together with you will glance in the near future of "goddess". You want to see what "buns" developers in the closest release of the Vesta panel prepare for you?

Buns


I think, practically each software product has the features. We already mentioned some of them earlier, and there are those which I specially left for "dessert".

In due time children released several paid expansions somehow to cover expenses on support and development of this panel.

The first of them is magic, I will not be able just to give by other word convenience of its UI, a file manager. As soon as you activate a plug-in, there will be a menu item Files upon transition to which, the following window will open:

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

He agrees that the first impression can be a little bit exaggerated, but you did not see a set of available SHORTCUTS yet and even did not begin to work with the manager of files, the truth?

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

The design team also does not hide that the hot keys were borrowed from magnificent the file of the manager of GNU Midnight Commander. Well the truth and why do not notice what is really convenient? Also believe me, you will have an opportunity will be convinced of it independently.

The second paid expansion is SFTP Chroot. This plug-in can be more interesting to those from you who provides services of a hosting, and also shares the server with other users. Further I would like to cite the developer, concerning this additional "feature" for safety increase:
The FTP protocol is unsafe as all passwords are transferred in pure form without enciphering. Sitting in cafe on public Wi-Fi, there is a risk that this someone will intercept. To include SFTP, it is necessary to issue to the user a system shell, however, it will allow the user to browse not only its own directories, but also system, it seems / etc, / sbin or / bin. It is not a problem if the server is used by 2-3 developers. And here when there is already a speech about issuing access to people to whom there is no full confidence the dilemma appears. The SFTP Chroot module helps to solve it. If the module is activated, then on all accounts without real shell (/sbin/nologin), the specific mode of SFTP connection joins. Such accounts can see files only in the house directory and all.
After activation of this expansion it is necessary for specifically taken user in settings of the account to select from the drop-down list the necessary parameter, as shown in a screenshot below:

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

You still think over what panel to select? Then I continue, and I pass to the most "tasty buns" of the closest release of the Vesta panel.

There will be additional hot keys which will allow to manage completely a panel by means of the keyboard is abruptly.

Free control bars hosting. Goddess of Vesta

Also there will be an opportunity to receive free SSL the certificate from the Let's Encrypt project literally in one click. And as assured me skid it is functionality already on a final test stage.

I will not begin to disclose all details of the future release, and better I will leave a little "food for reflections" to you, our dear readers. All parts at the end of the publication.

As gratitude I want to list by name each of design team of this "goddess":

  • Dmitry Naumov — UI, that interface which all of us love: simplicity and convenience;
  • Dmitry Malyshev — JS without what interaction with the interface would not be interactive;
  • Anton Reutov — user support, testing, analysis and sorting of bugs;
  • Pavel Galkin — user support, testing;
  • Sergey Rodin is the person who told me all "secrets" of this remarkable software product.

And also to report that people from different corners of the world take part in development of this product what the number of language versions of a panel, and also account statistics on the GitHub project confirms. And developers recognize that they are pleasantly surprised with interest and desire of some users to support their project.

To hold so, children!

P.S. To support the project in return we together with design team decided to provide to each our client who rents service cloudy VPS an opportunity one-time to activate both paid expansions absolutely free of charge for one service with access for the superuser. For this purpose after carrying out the order just create tikt in sales department and we activate for you a plug-in(s).

P.P.S. Developers in return decided to carry out also an action and to give you an opportunity at the order of eternal versions of licenses to receive in addition 30% of a discount. At a design of the order just use the coupon of HABR which will work till January 15th.

This article is a translation of the original post at habrahabr.ru/post/274029/
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