Robots stick — the person is happy?
1930 — 1940.
It were difficult years both for all state, and for the economic sphere. Collecting and data handling about a situation in economic entities were performed manually, paper, computational capability — scores was the main information medium. To the aid of accountants, accountants and economists computing devices came: arithmometers and mechanical calculating machines. Shortly before the beginning of the Great Patriotic War industrial release of keyboard and perforation mechanical ADP equipment was adjusted. Information gathered and processed in computing bureaus — the economy of the USSR of the pre-war period was so measured. Further history of development of computing devices for a national economy is interrupted — tasks of profile designers were reduced to development of an ACS by the weapon which were created, developed and functioned in the conditions of absolute secrecy.
Arithmometer "Felix" — the arithmometer, most widespread in the USSR. Was issued, taking into account numerous modifications, from 1929 to 1978 at plants of calculating machines in Kursk (Schyotmash), in Penza (The Penza plant of ADP equipment) and in Moscow
However military progress and development of military management systems could not but affect an ACS status in general — after war scientists could return to a question of development of systems. Here what is written about this time by the leading expert on military ACS V. Isaev:
… numerous specialized computers, computer systems and automated systems for antimissile and antispace defense, and also an ACS of the Supreme command, the General Staff, RVSN, management of forces of the VTR, aircraft including an early warning system about missile attack were created...
Despite command economy and "collective everything", during this period the future of an ACS was defined by scientists whose names are inseparably linked with domestic automation: ideologist, dreamer and, perhaps, genius of an ACS A.I. Kitov, A.A. Lyapunov, A.I. Berg, outstanding scientist V. M. Glushkov and many others. Let's not tell grandiloquent words about their personal fight for the concept of an ACS, but stating historical milestones, we will remember that these people defined history of automated control systems of the USSR and even Post-Soviet Russia. So, in 1955 scientists pay attention of colleagues to possibilities of use of a computer and cybernetics for control automation by a national economy. It was the courageous act as in those days the cybernetics endured disgrace and was exposed to criticism in scientific community. And already in 1956 Whales writes the book (the USSR's first book on programming) in which in detail tells about the concept of use of an ACS in socialist society:
Use of electronic machines for automatic control of productions will lead to substantial increase of labor productivity, improvement of quality of products and economy of materials and energy. Unlike capitalist society where implementation of electronic automatic devices involves dismissal of workers and deterioration in conditions of their life, in socialist society electronic automatic equipment and, including, electronic computers facilitate working conditions of people, exempt them from the most laborious, tiresome and uniform mental work and promote, eventually, increase of material well-being of workers. In our country electronic machines find application for automated management of the productions constituting health hazard and lives of people, such as, in some types of chemical industry. Important area of future use of electronic digital machines is mechanization and automation of processes of administrative management, up to state planning, accounting and control.
At the beginning of 1959 Whales sends Khrushchev the letter. In it he tells about huge financial losses which the country sustains because of management personnel shortcomings. Right there, in the letter, it proposes a solution: transition from manual and finite forms of management to the computers automated, based on use. As envisioned by the scientist the single network of computers which will collect and process statistical and accounting data both over the country in general, and on each enterprise has to be created. It will allow to analyze indicators, to evaluate needs for labor, materials, existence of money. He suggested to set separate computers in authorities and at the enterprises, and then to integrate them, thereby having received a cluster which will help to reduce managerial and administrative personnel (a human factor) and to liquidate part of government agencies.
Surprisingly, but the letter was accepted favourably and the commissions on work on the sentence were created. Such is it, Soviet, or perhaps and primordially Russian, bureaucracy. And already in the fall of the 1959th year A. I. Kitov sends addressed to N. S. Khrushchev the second letter with a signature stamp "Top secret" containing the project of control automation by armed forces and a national economy of the USSR by means of a national network of computer centers of a dual purpose. Certainly, military department rejected idea of a dual purpose – computer centers of the Ministry of Defence had to become independent.
By 1965 the urgent need in an ACS which arose on a wave of the first information revolution ripened. Information volume increased and it was necessary to increase the speed of its processing. According to the estimates of scientists, external document flow of the medium-sized industrial enterprise in 1965 made about 100 thousand documents and 1 million indicators.
However only the set of productive and serious reports, projects, monographs and publications follows further. In the 1966th year the Ministry of the radio industry of the USSR and TsSU the USSR approved "An avant-project of the state network of computer centers (SNCC)". A.I. Kitov and A.Ya. Boyarsky were research supervisors of this avant-project. In the 1967th year A. I. Kitov was approved as the Chief designer "A standard industry automated control system – OASU", and as the research supervisor of this OASU approved V. M. Glushkov. In the 1967th year A. I. Kitov on the instructions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party prepared the report in which it openly showed strong lag in the field of a computer of the USSR from the USA. Also basic reasons of this lag were stated: lack of coordination of works in the field of creation of a computer and the software, dissociation of developers.
The approximate scheme of the organization of information flows and information arrays in a computer for ensuring management of the main production, and also work and material forces of one of an ACS ("Sigma")
1971-1975 — a five-years period with variable success
The ACS had to become one of characters of the created post-industrial society. In 1971 directives XXIV of congress of CPSU by the five-year development plan for a national economy of the USSR for 1971-1975 provided increase in release of a computer by 2,6 times. It was supposed "to provide broad application of economic-mathematical methods, use of electronic and computing and organizational equipment" for the purpose of improvement of planning and management of the industries, the enterprises, associations. The task to put into operation 1600 ACS the enterprises and about 700 technology processes was set. First of all it was going to implement an ACS at the enterprises of the industry which gave 40% of products in the country.
But the plan was not set. On August 22, 1975 the Council of ministers of the USSR reports about mismatch of rates of development of automation to requirements of economy of the state. The plan for a five-years period 75-80 was put — three times in comparison with the previous period to increase amounts of works on development and deployment in the industry of an ACS technology processes, units and productions. ASUP demanded improvement of all production structure of the enterprise: by calculations of scientists organizational measures provided 60–80% of cumulative effect of implementation of ASUP. However interest of the majority of the enterprises in an ACS remained infinitely low.
The implemented projects
However in the 60th years there is a first ACS which went further paper – an ACS "Lviv" which development lasted from 1965 to 1967. In 1967 implementation of the first stage of system was successfully carried out, and in 1969 the second queue is handed over. Implementation of the first stage solved problems of operational planning and scheduling of production, and also its material support. The problem of automatization of accounting and the reporting at the enterprise, technical and economic planning and forecasting was solved with introduction of the second queue to operation. "Lviv" two modified universal computers "Minsk-22" which are in addition understaffed with different blocks that allowed to solve problems of management in real time formed technical base for work of an ACS. The ACS "Lviv" solved a set of problems of plant: production management, planning, diagram of works; planning of material support and warehouse stocks; work with financial, managerial and supplying statements.
Computer Minsk-22: Software onboard: the autocode for a solution of engineering tasks, system of character encoding with macromeans, an automatic data processing system based on COBOL. TTH: The RAM — the ferrite core 8192 words, NML (tape storage device) — 1,6 million words, high-speed performance — 56 thousand operations per second.
After an ACS "Lviv" works on an ACS of "Kuntsevo" for Kuntsevsky radio plant begin. This system was designed for a solution as it is possible bigger quantity of tasks in group priboro-and machine-building industries. The tasks set for developers demanded performance of work huge, literally enormous, amount. In comparison with an ACS for the Lviv television plant, the Kuntsevo project demanded bigger quantity of resources both human, and industrial and was considered as more volume by the number of the operations which are subject to automation within the enterprise. Besides, during design development for a computer "Minsk-32" was necessary that in addition tightened work.
Computer Minsk-32: Software onboard: COBOL, the Fortran with debugging tools, the autocode for a solution of engineering tasks, system of character encoding with macromeans, is for the first time implemented the multiprogramme mode in the computers operating systems of a small class, the first hardware-software system of compatibility is created. TTH: The RAM — the ferrite core 16384 — 65536 words, NML (tape storage device) — 80 million words, high-speed performance — 65 thousand operations per second.
It was the ACS unprecedented in terms of the scope of which development was imposed in the most directive way to Yu.M. Repyev who created several ACS for defense and space needs by then. He initially did not manage to gather a team and to interest the manual of plant which simply needed an ACS, without special understanding as to coordinate it to production and managerial process. However, despite a set of problems, in 1969 the Kuntsevo ACS project in 150 volumes was handed over. It was succeeded to implement only separate parts of system – it outstripped the time for 20 years and the majority of sentences of the project (and that not all!) it was succeeded to implement only on the first computers of IBM. The ACS of "Kuntsevo", the project, brilliant from the technical point of view, revealed problems which vendors and the companies face and until now: formality of implementation and development, mismatch of system to productions, mismatch of an ACS and computational capabilities and so forth.
At the same time cold war and race of arms throws down the challenges: actively military ACS for launch of space and strategic rockets, navy, accounting in the field of military industrial complex are projected and implemented. All these projects are successful. The thought arises: what not so with a national economy? And right there is an answer: formal interest puts barriers on the way of development of management systems. Besides, at the highest levels that power concerns went that creation of the uniform ACS consisting of the computer network will show the true situation in certain subjects and economy in general. And to the middle of the 70th there was nothing good.
Despite it the new stage in development of ASUP fell on the second half of the 70th years and the 80th years. It were complex ASUP in which problems of computer-aided design of new products (CAD), technology preparation of production (ASPP), automation of tests of finished products and automation of organizational business management (ASUP) were integrated. These systems used more powerful iron, including the import equipment and are the immediate family of the modern ERP systems which flooded the Russian market in the 90th and 2000th.
Great success of the auto giant VAZ
We especially are proud of this block as now AvtoVAZ is located in one city with office of development of Ruli24, in Tolyatti. It is connected with them and in any other manner, but about it a bit later.
One of the first full and successful implementations of an ACS took place at the Volga automobile plant of a name of the 50 anniversary of the USSR (VAZ, nowadays AvtoVAZ). It also is unsurprising – the giant of such scale just could not do without automation of worker processes.
The ACS on automobile works solved several key operational and production problems: operational scheduling and control of the course of the main production, control of assembly conveyors in real time, technical and economic planning and accounting, supply with the main and auxiliary materials and components, accounting of the movement of personnel and payroll calculation, organization of repair of technology equipment, organization, planning and accounting of production and distribution of spare parts, planning and accounting of promotion of orders of auxiliary production, design technology preparation of production and so forth. Technical providing an ACS-VAZ had hierarchical structure of creation and provided technology interconnected cycle of registration, collecting, processing and issue of information in the daily mode.
The "iron" park was made by 9 computers of General Electric, a complex of the traditional equipment (perforators – 8 units, verifiers – 4, interpretations of punched cards and loud-speakers – 2 units) and over 400 units of peripheral devices. Average daily effective time of work of a computer without a scheduled down time made 21,5 hours, the daily number of registration per unit of peripheral equipment reached 1000–1500. In system reliability of information transfer was provided, the number of wrong registration for technical reasons did not exceed 0,1% of their total number. High reliability of functioning of a complex of an ACS-VAZ was provided with a possibility of flexible reservation of external devices and computers processors that allowed to reconfigure quickly computing systems by means of peripheral and channel switches.
Of course, the success of implementation was caused not only interest of the manual of plant leader, but also a number of factors among which it is separately necessary to mention exclusive attention to preparation of personnel (2680 employees of plant). Project groups between which ACS subsystems were rationally distributed were created, work went to compliance with the zonal centralized principle of technical maintenance and repair of means of ADP and peripheral equipment. Training of managerial personnel went in a continuous mode, and functional workers accepted active speed up in development of an ACS.
As a result of implementation operations of manual accounting were completely excluded. The same success, only a few in smaller scales, was repeated on several food and industrial productions where operation of product lines, normative calculations, planned cost value and other raschyotoyomky tasks was automated. There were also wrong stories when management and a functional structure subordinated to an ACS. However, it and today not a rarity. But the staff of all organizations where there was successful implementation, noted that interest of divisions and their help in design and implementation was the main factor nevertheless.
Alexander Nefyodov, the CEO of OOO "ILADA" and the author of the Ruli24 xRM-system tells:
I worked in management of the organization of production of UOP of AvtoVAZ from 1977 to 1990 and participated in creation of an ACS and the PCS. In particular the ACS subsystem "Quality" in which not only defects and defects were considered was created, but the forecast and the plan of quality for all productions and workshops of plant was calculated. Besides, VAZ podvignut me on development of a unified information system with a uniform repository since at that time each department of UOP was engaged in automation of the activity. Someone snabzhenty, someone production, someone sale, etc. It was necessary to do many "bridges" between these subsystems. Besides there was a computer big park: CM2, CM4, PDP 11/70, EC 1055 and so forth. Our department was engaged in both automation of works of the main assembly konveyyr and creation of management systems as sections of machines with ChPU. During 1998 for 2003. we already in Infolad's company did for AvtoVAZ of an ACS "Accounts department" which is operated still. Specialists of AvtoVAZ modify it already.
Frankly speaking, I know examples of implementation in our country of the MRP standards a little! — works at VAZ, OAO "TZTO". And where still? Everything that is told about implementation of ERP - it is at best the financial block, human resource management and logistics. But in any way not MRP and CRP.
MRP (Material Requirements Planning) — planning of need for materials on the basis of the volume planned schedule, design specifications of products. The need for materials and components is calculated; taking into account data on warehouse stocks the plan of purchases of raw materials — materials and components is calculated.
OGAS — one more strangled dream
The separate attention in the overview is deserved by OGAS (a nation-wide automated system of accounting and information processing) conceived by A.I. Kitov, and designed by V. M. Glushkov. It was the grandiose project, work on which took more than two decades and for which financing it was selected more, than for space exploration and nuclear power combined. Whether it is worth speaking about scales of this attempt of informatization of all Soviet economy. However, except the general history, OGAS had initial premises to a failure: extensive development (raw orientation, defense industry immoderately developed) brought the Soviet economy, race of its arms just exhausted. OGAS could give macroeconomic indicators to scientists that would shed light on crisis of the developed economic system.
Development of the project happened in two large stages. At the first stage the system of consolidation of several computer centers in a single network of data collection and processing for the purposes of management of a national economy was offered. The first stage ended with the fact that economic councils were the ministries are abolished and returned. At the second stage (1966-1969), departments (TsSU USSR, the State Planning Committee of the USSR, etc.) it was entrusted to them to finish the project, suggested to be limited to creation of industry (ministerial) computing systems that contradicted an original project of OGAS as single nation-wide automated system. All concept on which prominent scientists worked collapsed in the eyes. But at the end of 1969 it became known that the USA created ARPANET which connected objects of defense, universities and governing bodies. In the middle of Cold war it was the explicit blow below the belt struck Soviet to the manual. Which did not fail to turn a look to OGAS again. Now all departments had to create the state automated systems, and then integrate them in a nation-wide network.
The OGAS project completely was not implemented, and in 1991 lost meaning – transition to market economy specified the rules of the game. However some functional links nevertheless were put in operation. From 1966 till June, 1984 6900 ACS of different function, from them more than 3300 ACS at the enterprises and about 3200 departmental ACS were created. Construction of a network of computer centers started in the late seventies, 21 reference VTs for service of 2000 enterprises were constructed. The average effect of work of one reference VTs made about 2 million rubles. In December, 1978 for the first time in the USSR the intercomputer data exchange between VTs located in Moscow, Riga, Kiev, Tashkent and Tomsk was performed.
The last attempt "to reach heaven" it was made by the desperate scientist Kitov in 1985, in the letter to Gorbachev. After 1991 everything became not before and automation began to take that shape which eyewitnesses we are today.
It is useless to hope that everything will be settled by itself and ADP equipment itself will gradually rebuild structure of management of economy … More than ten years' experience of works in our country shows that except talk, promises and separate, generally demonstrative tasks, nothing is impossible though big money is spent, the mass of very qualified specialists works. In too time the capitalist countries almost widely use automation and ADP equipment in the field of management and all leave in comparison with the USSR further forward.
Market economy: new realities of automation
The market economy brought a variety not only on counters of shops, but also in a software development sphere. The former developers of military and industrial ACS actively adopted experience of foreign colleagues and created the business firms constructed on development and implementations of the Russian systems of accounting. Let's try to understand the main types of enterprise information systems and end-to-end systems of management.
MPS master planning scheduling — is volume — the planned schedule of production on the basis of marketing data, the enlarged sales plan the plan of production for the calendar periods is calculated.
ERP systems allow to organize a vicious circle of planning and to try to resolve the conflict of interests of three directors: the finance director (to reduce a stock rate), the director of production (to hold capacities loaded), the sales director (to reduce the amount of outstanding orders).
In the market of information technologies of Russia one of the first there were system integrators the proposing solutions of world suppliers of ERP systems (SAP R/3, Baan, Scala, Axapta, Salesforce).
Among the ERP developers of the systems offering own developments it is possible to select the companies "Galaktika", "Parus", "1C", "Ilada", "Tsefey". And today, in 2015, "Galaxy", "Sail", "Tsefey" propose difficult solutions of complex automation of the companies of the overworking and power industries. They are aimed at a production management combination, holding cooperation, resources (material, personnel) in the single integrated system. 1C Habr's readers and so know all of destiny — this system subdued the Russian business, having armed with its system of accounting adapted to domestic realities, a set of the accompanying systems.
Beyond the scope of ERP systems there are such subsystems as design and technology preparation of production (design specifications of products, route and operational technologies), quality management by products, management of warehouses, management of relationship with clients and suppliers, management business of processes, electronic document management, the regulated reporting and many other things). Therefore, often speak about the integrated information systems, about automated control systems for the enterprise of ASUP or XRM management systems for all relationship.
Working on the Ruli24 system, we collected the pivot table of compliance of the western and Russian terminology of management systems by relationship at the enterprise. It gives visual understanding that at XRM is "under a cowl".
|Function||In the western option||In the Russian option||The module in "Ruli24"|
|Sales, marketing||CRM — customer relationship management||ACS marketing and sales (but CRM is more often)||Ruli24 CRM|
|Personnel administration||HRM — human resource management||ACS frames||Ruli24 Personnel|
|Management of warehouses||WMS — warehouse management system||ACS warehouse operations||Ruli24 warehouse|
|Budgeting||FIM — Finans management||ACS finance||Ruli24 Budget|
|Acceptance and document handling||ECM — Enterprise content management||ACS office-work||Ruli24 EDMS|
|Logistics||SCM — supply chain management||ACS deliveries||—|
|Design||PM — project management||ACS projects||Ruli24 Project|
|Production||ERP — enterprise resource planning||ACS planning and control of the course of production||Ruli24 Enterprise|
|Respect for technological effectiveness||MES — manufacturing execution system||ACS engineering control, industrial control system||Ruli24 Quality|
|Tracking of execution of the set production tasks||BPM — business process management||ACS business processes||Ruli24 Process|
|Accounting of working hours and salary||HRM — human resource management||ACS organization of work and salary||Ruli24 Salary|
|Accounting||FIM — Finans management, also Accounting, Accountancy||ACS accounts department||Ruli24 Accounts department|
CRM (Customer Relationship Management), sometimes almost does not separate from SFA (SalesForce Automation). It is the most known class of systems, interest in which does not weaken even in crisis time as automation of small and medium business brings the notable effect arising in view of economy of resources and forces of employees. Real demand for CRM arose in 1998-2000 when crisis broke all opportunities of the price competition and it was necessary to look for methods of intensive development. Formally the first Russian CRM is Sales Expert, however if to address history of other companies, then all of them appeared in the market at the same time and developed synchronously — from schedulers to full-fledged CRM.
PM (Project Management). Perhaps, one of the most demanded types. The systems of different level of complexity and cost aimed at project management: the project — a task — a milestone. Strongly are divided by the industries and spheres of business. In domestic practice, as a rule, are part of large systems of other types.
BPMS (Business Process Management Systems) — the universal management systems the company oriented to business process creation as the automated chain of actions. Among domestic and Post-Soviet systems it is possible to select ELMA, Terrasoft, and also our Ruli24 in which creation of business processes is performed in the notation of BPMN 2.0.
And again BPM (but already Business Performance Management), it is Enterprise Performance Management (EPM), Strategic Enterprise Management (SEM) and Corporate Performance Management (CPM). These are management systems efficiency of the enterprise. The complex integrating all processes, methodologies and metrics necessary for measurement of indicators of organization activity and management of these indicators. In fact, it is the tool for financiers and top managers of corporations and banks: development of strategy on the basis of KPI, planning and budgeting, monitoring and control of budget implementation, the analysis and regulation in compliance with the received indicators.
EDMS (System of automation of document flow, electronic document management system). It is same, as well as previous, the management system activity of the company, but management process relies on the human-readable documents containing instructions for the staff of the organization necessary to execution. Actually all processes are started on any approvals of documents. The system can be a basis of automation or to be one of tools. The leader among domestic developers (it is slightly less than a half of the market) is the Electronic Office Systems company (EOS) delivering a complex of electronic document management systems of different function. As a rule, such systems are implemented in the companies with enormous amounts of document flow and impressive, to several tens of thousands, the number of employees: banks, plants, mobile network operators.
History of the Russian automation of business develops much less dramatically, than an ACS in the Soviet period. Vendors decide what as well as in what terms to bring to the market — and each system finds the buyer. Working over these a post, we reflected and whether there is succession in this sphere, it is difficult to trace a way from OGAS to any Russian KIS or ASUP, a lot of things are taken from foreign practice. But succession nevertheless is: these are numerous scientific works, it is the developed science cybernetics, these are the defense engineers who gave start to the industry in the late nineties, it still the remained technical education grown from schools of sciences of heroes of our overview.
They say that the Russian people long harness, but quickly go. In the field of an ACS Russia harnessed too long. The industry dispersed, now the main thing — to increase the pace. And who knows that else he will open for scientists and practicians studying of the OGAS project and 150 volumes of an ACS of "Kuntsevo".
Reference book of the party worker. Issue 11. M, 1971
Malinovsky B., Academician Victor Glushkov
Materials of the third International SoRuCom-2014 conference
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