Recently in the West the tendency to decrease in use of the electric power with the NPP for the organization of power supply of large enterprises is observed. Russia nevertheless does not hurry to refuse peaceful atom pays more and more attention to development of the NPP and finding of opportunities for the most rational use of their resources.
News of construction of one of the largest and powerful data-centers of Russia directly near the Kalinin NPP became confirmation of it. This station is equipped with four power units with water power reactors (VVER-1000) with a rated capacity of 1000 MW everyone which locate free resources of electrogeneration now.
The new project — the 80 MW DPC. The server farm, according to the project, will be able to contain up to 10 thousand mounting is resistant.
The federal target program "Nuclear Power Technologies of New Generation for 2010-2015 and on Perspective till 2020" (the FTP of YaENP) was initiated by scientific and technical division of Rosatom State corporation (now — the Block on management of innovations). The purposes of the program are: development of new nuclear power technologies, creation of modern research reactors on fast neutrons and new samples of the research equipment.
"Green" and reliable power supply
For anybody not a secret that dauntaym computational capabilities brings to owners and their clients huge losses, not only financial, but also and reputation. To minimize leaving in offline, the organization of permanent supply of electricity in DPC is necessary. Excellent candidate solution are nuclear reactors, especially, when business reaches the choice of a source of the electric power for infrastructure of a data-center – eventually, reactors also have to work continuously to save efficiency. Such combination — DPC + nuclear power station — seems quite logical, even despite concerns of ecologists and simple inhabitants concerning safety of the NPP.
Many large Internet corporations make serious efforts in recent years to depart from unrenewable energy resources (such as coal and natural gas) at the organization of power supply of the DPCs. For this purpose they invest money in solar farms, wind power stations, hydroelectric power station and even fuel elements on hydrogen.
Nuclear energy also is in a sense "green" alternative to the electricity generated on standard "dirty" coal and gas thermal power plants.
Whether will interest the project of Facebook and Google?
The Rosenergoatom concern which is part of state corporation Rosatom and the operator of the Russian nuclear power stations will be engaged in implementation of the project. The new server farm will be used for rendering of services on joint placement of server hardware (kolokeyshn). About 10 percent of useful space and power of a data-center will be reserved for the state company while other resources of DPC will be available to commercial clients.
The last will be is among (as expected) by the numerous Internet companies like Facebook and Google which aim to use as seldom as possible traditional power sources and at the same time have to bring the business into accord to requirements of the Russian legislation regarding protection of client data. Now the foreign companies have to store data of the Russian citizens in the territory of Russia. Apparently, the American companies should accept this sentence from Rosenergoatom.
Earlier "Rosatom" suggested the Google and Facebook companies to use this site for transfer to Russia of personal data of the users. The proposal was made in connection with entry into force since September 1, 2015 of the federal law on a personal data storage in the territory of Russia. "Rosatom" is going to use up to 10% of opportunities of DPC under needs of the Rosenergoatom concern, all the rest will be freely offered in the market.
It should be noted that the concept of placement of data-centers near electric power supplies it is impossible to call the innovation. To take an example at least numerous hydroelectric power stations in the territory of the American state of Oregon which involve more and more operators of DPC to this region. But! so large-scale projects on placement of data-centers near nuclear power stations were not yet.
Benefits of a new data-center
The building site of new DPC was located approximately in 200 kilometers to the northwest from Moscow. This project on calculations is estimated at about 6,4 billion rubles, this sum did not include IT infrastructure cost yet. Completion of works within its first stage is planned for March, 2017. Works within the second queue have to come to the end with summer of 2018. After commissioning of these 80 MW the server farm will be the largest and the most powerful in Russia.
The city of Udomlya will become reliable "haven" for new DPC. This town is the satellite town of the Kalinin NPP and is near Tver and fiber lines of communication between Moscow and St. Petersburg, than the additional benefit in the form of reliable and fast communication lines is provided.
The machine hall consists of two levels: above there are generators and turbines, on lower — condensers, pumps and pipelines.
Here heat energy turns into electric
In the territory of the Kalinin NPP, as well as in territories of many other large enterprises there are several bunkers for temporary shelter of personnel in case of a non-staff situation. There not only it is possible to be within several days, but also to control behind a radiation situation on a surface, to keep in contact including video conference with the outside world. However, the equipment for monitoring of an ecological situation installed in bunkers is used round the clock and now. It is possible to be quiet — a radiation background in the territory of the Kalinin NPP and in neighborhoods of the city of Udomlya is in regulation limits, and it is even lower than in the center of Moscow.
TVEL (heat-generating element): basic element of a fissile region of a heterogeneous nuclear reactor
In addition to stable power supply with use of resources of the next NPP and the neighbourhood with an optical fiber also the frikuling has to be among advantages of a new data-center. Thanks to a geographical arrangement of a new server farm (the temperature average monthly maximum in the summer in the Tver region — about 24 Celsius degrees, and from September to May here obviously lower than 20) this technology can quite be used for cooling of servers during the most part of year.
For implementation of the project Rosenergoatom had to conduct negotiations on an occasion of modification of rules which regulate prices of electricity.
It is necessary for connection of new DPC directly to the generating capacities with a possibility of the organization of power supply of a northern farm for a discount fare.
How this project looked at the level of idea, the CEO Evgeny Romanov told even earlier:
Specifically on KAES (the Kalinin NPP) … we solve extremely important problem now – we consider the investment project which will include construction of several body near station which will be oriented under the Data-center. It is the center for data handling.
First, we are going to concentrate here racks, servers which will service all information of concern, we will offer further that here all TsODy connected with Rosatom State Corporation were collected, thirdly, it will allow us to attract on commercial terms such serious organizations as Google, Yandex which work at the territory of Russia. Here several components turn out: the first – we have in the minimum set (i.e. we, plus the commercial structure) is 100 MBT if we, group of companies and commercial structures are already 200 MBT stable electricity consumptions. An obvious thing that all electronics which will be concentrated here demands in the winter of heating, in the summer of cooling, and this stable consumption of a large number of the electric power.
It is good, but for us it already it not the main thing. We pass for ourselves not to trade in the electric power, and to trade in bits, i.e. with very high value added. And already we reflect and why to us in general in the VVER TOI complex not to sew also this Data-center as an indispensable condition? Then, delivering our power units abroad, we begin to deliver not only to these countries of the electric power, but still we deliver carriers and sources of information.
I will remind, in the modern world of war are won not by guns and tanks, and are won in information space. You possess information – you own the world. And you will be in this sense on a front line, on an attack edge again. And to you not to get used to solve unique problems. You are able to do it. Collective at you brilliant. I hope that we will manage to prove this solution. Already there was an intermediate meeting. The command for preparation of the final presentation is given, within 2 weeks we come to the manual of group of companies to receive a solution that we will begin these investments. At us these investments are estimated at couple of billions rubles.
Today Rosenergoatom operates ten nuclear power stations with 33 reactors. It is going to increase the number of reactors to 59 pieces by 2030. For support of similar expansion of business the company needs additional finance which can be received also by means of construction of a big commercial data-center near Kalinin nuclear power station.
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