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2 years, 11 months ago
The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

Transfer of a post of Keiko Hirayama "Dissecting the New Anatomy Content in the Wolfram Language".

The code given in article can be downloaded here.

I express huge gratitude to Kirill Guzenko of KirillGuzenko for the help in transfer and preparation of the publication

The body of the person is a studying subject from the very beginning of human history. The modern scientific directions in anatomy and physiology come from symbiosis of the art and anatomy which arose during a Renaissance era. At the beginning of the 16th century Leonardo da Vinci submitted to one of the first rather detailed and exact sketches of a human body and its structures. In 1543 Vezaly published the well-known textbook De Humani Corporis Fabrica (About a structure of a human body) with beautiful illustrations of it.

Having modern technologies at our disposal, we can submit data on physiology and anatomy in a computable format. By means of Wolfram|Alpha we created for all an opportunity to easily study how separate anatomical structures are connected with each other in a human body, and also to investigate both the whole systems of bodies, and their microscopic components.

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

Let's begin our research with macroscopic structures.

From important body of cardiovascular system — heart:

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

Wolfram|Alpha provides not only the main information on an anatomic structure (the Latin name, function, group, parts etc.), but also calculates the relations and communications between anatomical structures.

Here, for example, the arteries supplying blood to heart:

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

It is so easy to compare couple of large vessels of cardiovascular system.

Aorta and lower hollow vein:

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

Anatomic data are also available also through Wolfram Language (their availability in the Wolfram Language language automatically means that you can use this functionality in Wolfram Mathematica and Wolfram Cloud).

Let's consider the musculoskeletal device. If you the professional gymnast or the one who often visits a gym you are probably interested in development of muscles of legs. And what muscles are? Wolfram Language can provide data on what muscles are available in legs:

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

Let's consider now muscles which are very often involved during exercises — gastrocnemius muscles.

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

The beginning of a muscle (the fixed end) and attachment (the mobile end):

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

Now we know that gastrocnemius muscles are connected to femoral and calcaneal bones. But where exactly they are in a leg?

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

Nothing to as there are a lot of bones! How we will be able to see the wood behind these trees? Let's find out how they are with each other connected:

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

We can see five fingers on the right, and also a leg and a hip at the left. May we learn names of these bones?

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

It is very useful to know how bones connect with each other. May we find calcaneal and femoral bones and look at how they look?

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

The calcaneal bone is how big? Going further away, it is possible even to learn the volume of a calcaneal bone:

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

Let's assume that after an hour of run on a racetrack which according to data of Wolfram|Alpha, burns about 946 calories (at a speed of run about 8 min./mile) you receive a signal from a brain of what it is time to eat, and you eat chocolate bar, covering power consumptions.

Having clicked "Ctrl" + "=" (in Wolfram Mathematica or Wolfram Cloud) and having gathered "digestive organs" (bodies of system of digestion), we will gain an impression about the main bodies of a gastrointestinal tract:

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

Let's receive the list of bodies of system of digestion and we will find out — that they do:

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

And now we use the Wordcloud function and we will create a cloud of the words which are most often used for the description of digestive functions:

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

Digestive activity — unconscious process which is regulated by our vegetative nervous system.

Let's find out what nerves innervate these digestive organs:

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

The vagabonding nerve and its branches in nervous system manage activity of a stomach in a gastrointestinal tract [1].

After you eat a chocolate, your level of glucose in blood raises. Therefore the pancreas selects insulin:

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

This hormone, in particular, signals a kernel of a gipotalamus about what you ate which, in turn, decides that you are full [2]:

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

How they influence at each other?

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

Let's illustrate these communications:

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

The Paraventrikulyarny kernel of a gipotalamus (red) is connected with regulation of appetite [3], and you can see its communications with a trunk of a brain which is engaged in gastrointestinal functions.

At last, let's look where this kernel is. The Paraventrikulyarny kernel of a gipotalamus is in the left hemisphere of your brain, almost precisely on the center:

The calculated knowledge of anatomy in Wolfram Language

Not important — is - whether anatomy part of your daily work, or it is simply one of your interests — the calculated anatomic data will give you available and deep understanding of how parts of a human body correspond with each other. If you want to study in more detail this subject, can look at documentation on AnatomyData in which the sick amount of anatomic concepts and their properties is presented.

Bibliography:
1. G. J. Schwartz. "The Role of Gastrointestinal Vagal Afferents in the Control of Food Intake: Current Prospects." Nutrition 16 no. 10 (2000): 866–873.
2. J. K. Elmquist, C. F. Elias, and C. B. Saper. "From Lesions to Leptin: Hypothalamic Control of Food Intake and Body Weight." Neuron 22 no. 2. (1999): 221–232.
3. A. K. Sutton, H. Pei, K. H. Burnett, M. G. Myers Jr, C. J. Rhodes, and D. P. Olson. "Control of Food Intake and Energy Expenditure by Nos1 Neurons of the Paraventricular Hypothalamus." Journal of Neuroscience 34 no. 46 (2014): 15306–15318.

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