It is analog paper "application", a volvell. That on a photo — the flight portable computer (rather modern volvella)
Each modern program thanks to thought over (we will optimistically see things) to the interface allows the person to obtain the necessary information quickly. To obtain data, it is necessary to move on the screen a finger-tip, and — voila, information already here. Perhaps, you will be surprised, but this idea did not appear presently. To it hundreds of years!
Of course, many tens, and even were not any screens, especially, touch hundreds years ago. But there were so-called volvella, it is quite possible to call them ancestors of modern applications. What is a volvella? Let's talk about it slightly below, and now – it is representable as defined time in old times without existence of a portable clockwork.
Really, in the first half of last millennium it was even necessary to work fine to learn time. It could be made by means of expensive device which is called an astrolabe. Configuring the device, and knowing current date, it was possible to learn time to within a minute. By the way, the modern version of an astrolabe can be delivered to itself on phone and to try to work with it.
Use of wheels to work with data is an ancient method at all. It in perfection was known still by creators of the Antikitersky mechanism. In the Middle Ages there was also mechanical clock which showed time already irrespective of the sun, date or provision of planets. But all these devices were rather expensive as metal was necessary for their production, skin, a tree and in certain cases also jewels (these are already elite versions for the powers that be).
But there were also "younger" versions of such devices which were created from paper. They were called volvella, and began to create them somewhere in the 11th century. In any case, the first references of volvella appeared in sources of the 11th century. Initially these "analog applications" were put in works on astronomies on which the Arab scientists initially worked. It is possible to call the 11 and 12 century gold for the Arab culture and science.
In the 13th century of a volvella began to extend across Europe, together with other Arab ideas and inventions. Systems of this kind began to use for work with astronomical data, work with them – is very effective, at the same time plenty of time is saved. It is not necessary to look in reference books, to remember tens of formulas. We enter one number, we twist a volvella, we obtain the output data.
Volvella the 15th centuries (the Source — British Library)
But most active volvella began to extend on the world in the 19th century. It is interesting that the majority volvell that time served also as advertizing. They were created by printing houses on money of vendors of products or house goods. Such "applications" could be used for the miscalculation of nutritional value of products, as the instrument of training, game or the astrological forecast. It was something like native advertizing about which we already wrote in the blog.
Of course, not all volvella had entertaining character. There were also very complex systems which allowed to get quick access to the technical information. Possibly, one of the most known systems of this kind is a volvell, allowing scientists to count quickly effects of nuclear explosion. Yes, as we see, actively worked with "paper applications" also modern scientists.
Trigonometr. Already very probably on design of modern mobile applications, the truth?
Earlier it was possible to see these paper "applications" nearly in each house and office. Instead of request in a Google search engine, about 50 years ago the person just twisted a paper castor, trying to find the answer to the question (the trigonometry formula, caloric content of a certain product, etc.).
And it is a modern volvella, 2009
In spite of the fact that volvella from paper are created, they are quite strong. These "applications" are so effective how effective mobile applications are. The interface of each such system is thought over and perfected, it is a pleasure to use volvella. This peculiar technology miracle for which development time is spent much.
It is necessary to grow thin quickly? Then it is worth using corresponding paper "application"
Volvella still are issued. Already there is not a lot of them as earlier, but they are still popular. As well as many years ago, they are used in the advertizing purposes — for example, volvella let out some banks. It "the analog application" from bank allows to count percent on the deposit as an example.
Volvella were earlier expensive (and the first volvella and in general were on sale for gold) since people who created them spent a lot of time and forces. Applications are much more available to all or in general free now. Thanks to what? Thanks to progress, it is helped by advertizing, and Appodeal helps all this.
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