Second part: habrahabr.ru/post/196276/
Third part: habrahabr.ru/post/197160/
Today I completes this cycle of transfers. In a fourth part will be about late versions of Mac OS Classic, the beginning of Mac OS X and slightly about not computer products of Apple.
Mature years of Mac OS
NeXT follow after purchase release receiving number 7.6. Mac OS 8.0 at first want to let out as 7.7, but then chang the mind and ma as are.
Mac OS 8
Here some novelties, initially schedulable enter into Copland. For example:
- File system of HFS +
- Retrieval engine for local disks, servers of a network and the Internet. It are known under nazvvaniye of Sherlock.
- API Copland which then smoothly mutirovalo in Carbon — oldovy developers under Mac OS shed avaricious tear.
- The subject of the Platinum interface, see a screenshot
- Support of several users with minimum decent access restriction
In Mac OS 8 there were multi-threaded Finder which at last allowing to produce some operations over files simultaneously. Still there were a shortcut menu with access on a ctrl-clique, the personal web hosting, considerably refin support of powersavings, USB and FireWire. For operation on the Internet IE and Netscape deliver simultaneously. Java were support through own rantaym of Macintosh Runtime for Java (MRJ) who too going in a set. Version 8.1 were last for 68k, since 8.5 PowerPC processors support only. In version 8.6 again rewr a microkernel for improving of support of multizadachnost and multiprotsessornost. There were allokator of storage, suitable for a preemptive multitasking. API of library of multiprotsessornost ceasing to clash with the virtual storage.
Mac OS 9
Mac OS 9 quitted in 1999. In advertizing stat that it are the best OS for the Internet. At least, to be updat on a network it were able. The cryptography and safety features refin, there were a support of AppleTalk over TCP/IP.
In Mac OS 9 includ stable release of API Carbon. It including 70 % API of old versions of Mac OS and providing the complete compatibility with versions of novee of Mac OS 8.1. The last release of Mac OS Classic, 9.2.2, quitting at the end of 2001.
Rhapsody for the first time show to audience at an exhibition of WWDC in 1997. It appearing as continuation of OPENSTEP with adding of compatibility with Mac OS. Significant components:
- The kernel also are more its the subsystems based on Mach and BSD
- Further development of API OpenStep, code name of Yellow Box
- Java virtual machine
- Layer of compatibility with Mac OS under a title of Blue Box
- Mac OS-like a subject of the interface for OPENSTEP
For Rhapsody it were plan portirovat many components of Mac OS: QuickTime, QuickDraw 3D, QuickDraw GX, ColorSync etc. The set of file systems were support: Apple Filing Protocol (AFP), FAT, HFS, HFS +, ISO9660 and UFS.
There two releases of Rhapsody — DR1 and DR2, both for developers. They support platforms of PowerPC and x86.
For compatibility of the PowerPC-version of DR1 with Mac OS ma application
MacOS.app, it are Blue Box. This virtual surrounding without emulation of iron, calls of Macintosh ROM who was transfer in slightly modif copy of Mac OS launch with a disk was broadcast only. Initially 'Mac OS 8.x in a mode of full screen application were emulat, with possibility of switching are reverse in Rhapsody. The programs work with iron directly and us dirty khaki not support. Support of more new versions of Mac OS and improving of the interface add in due course.
Yellow Box — are a platform for development Rhapsody fulfill in the form of a superstructure over system or as a Windows application.
Many libraries switched on in Yellow Box from OPENSTEP, rantaym for all it and means of development. For three most important components there API on the Objective-C and Java:
- Foundation: base classes for selection, release, checks, storages, notification messages and allocations of objects.
- Application Kit: rich API for creation of the interface of the user. Obtaining and event handling, operation with color, fonts, printers and other user pieces.
- Display PostScript: API for operation with PostScript, superimposing of images and any visual effects. As a whole, it are a part of Application Kit.
IDE Project Builder enter into Yellow Box and the visual Interface Builder tool clearly for what. Yellow Box under Windows NT were approximately similar on multifunction. The low-level services work with iron, rewr as a Windows service. For example, it are the emulator of a kernel of Mach
machdand server of names
nmserver. All remaining were the user programs, as WindowServer and
pbs, server of a clip board. The similar architecture were and at early implementations of OpenStep under indirect OS, for example Solaris.
On short-range approaches to Mac OS X
After release of Rhapsody DR2 at Apple once again strategy of release of OS considerably changed. Release of essentially new system will take three years. In a picture the approximate circuit of evolution:
Mac OS X of Server 1.x
Instead of Rhapsody DR3 expect by audience in March, 1999 of Apple suddenly let out Mac OS X of Server 1.0. As a whole, it are possible to consider this system as the next version of Rhapsody. In a set there were freymvork of WebObjects, the stream server QuickTime, Apache, means of development and remote administration.
Parallely with it there are the first version of Apple Darwin, fork of Rhapsody with the open code.
The following couple of years will quit updates of the server version who was integrat at once into yet not let out user version. Further they will have no global differences.
Mac OS X of Developer Preview
4 versions of Mac OS X of Developer Preview let out, they nam by DP1-4. In them new possibilities gradually add:
- API Carbon (DP1), for start old, but the recompil applications in new OS are implement. It softening a sharpness of passage to essentially new system. Old application demanding for start of installation of Mac OS 9 for start, applications of Carbon launch without it. Carbon were called as old API, in a counterbalance to new Cocoa. Thus they ha some small level of compatibility
- Application of Blue Box,
MacOS.app, renam in
- Yellow Box renam into Cocoa, add to it support of Java (DP2)
- Aqua (DP3) interface
Mac OS X of Public Beta
Paid beta in cost of $29.95 quitting in September, 2000. On a cover there were a message of Apple
It are clear that betya doing not suffice neither stability, nor multifunctions. But it were locking demonstration of amibtsiya and technologies of Apple. To general public for the first time show yuniksovy inherently Darwin with a kernel
xnu, a graphic subsystem of Quartz based on PDF, the Aqua interface with them firm dock, and so on. Darwin allowing to borrow and integrate into Mac OS X a noticeable amount of an indirect software with the open code and the appropriate license.
The kernel of Darwin are called
xnu. One of variants of decryption — «X is Not Unix». Or it are a hint on them an old kernel NuKernel alter under Mac OS X.
xnucontained the code of Mach, FreeBSD, MkLinux and a heap of other sources.
Mac OS X 10.x
Mac OS X 10.0 quitting on March 24, 2001. Soon the circuit of numbering of Mac OS X of Server adjust to desktopny versions. After that they beg to quit mutually, but desktopny hardly earlier.
At the moment of an output of article there such versions:
|10.0||Cheetah||On March 24 2001|
|10.1||Puma||On September 29 2001|
|10.2||Jaguar||On August 24 2002|
|10.3||Panther||On October 24 2003|
All versions (to 10.9, quit in 2013 — a comment perev.) called as names of the big cats. (Cheetah — are a cheetah. On a twist of fate, 10.0 working very slowly — a comment perev.)
In version 10.0 there iMovie and iTunes, in 10.1 add iDVD. Carbon API le to stable release too in 10.1. It allowing to let out quickly a lot of important software, for example Photoshop.
In 10.2 add many important improvings. Most noticeable from them — Quartz Extreme, an engine of the hardware acceleration of otrisovka of the interface. Besides, many new programs was add: Address Book, the Mail, Chat, Rendezvous for operation with a network, iPhoto, Safari, the X-server and many other things.
In 10.3 in the core stability and safety are refin.
After that the system as a whole becoming similar to that were plan in Apple. New users b Poppies and at once start to work effectively, old d not run up in a panic from unfamiliar layout of buttons and menus. Well and generally, among supporters of Apple there was a lot of people of different trades, inclinations
The description of an inner pattern of Mac OS X can be f in the book of the author of original article of Mac OS X of Internals.
Except computers and servers, Apple letting out also any other intelligent devices.
Pippin — this multimedia device, a prefix or the network computer come from the middle of 90th. Who both wanted, and named. On it it were possible to listen to audio CD, serfit on the Internet, to read mails and to play games, but it are impossible to use as the valuable computer. That is it are the device with artificially restricted possibilities like the game console. It were plan to sell the license to indirect vendors. Actually, it were PowerMac with restrictions. It are based on the PowerPC processor of 603e 66 MHz, contained 6 MB of storage, 128 KB of flesh, 4х CD ROM, a binaural sound, some video outputs, I will corrode PCI for the extension, connectors of ADB for the keypad and the mouse, the modem, the keypad and geympad. For operation of all of it the special version of Mac OS were us. The project were born dead and success doing not receive. The title happening from a sort of apples like.
The Apple ha a ruler the planshetopodobnykh of Newton devices. In the core, they belong to a ruler of MessagePad. A rare exception — eMate 300. There also clones. The very first MessagePad working on 20 MHz the ARM 610 processor, all it sufficing 640 KB of operating storage and 4Мб to ROM. It were 1993, version of a software of Newton OS 1.0. The epoch were complet in 1998. The latest model of MP2100 having a StrongARM processor with frequency of 162 MHz and on 8 MB of RAM and ROM. Numbering of versions of OS reaching Newton OS 2.1.
Newton System Software were quite logically divid into a kernel of Newton OS, system services and the user components. As a whole, it were advanc enough OS with a preemptive multitasking. All internal mechanics like the scheduler, task managements, inter-process communication, control of storage, a supply and operation with iron were implement through kernel threads. There were very developed subsystem of operation with serial protocols. In those years it allowing to use faxes, modems, infrared devices, networks of AppleTalk. It were possible even to add new protocols on the fly.
In the uppermost layer programs on NewtonScript and the interface of the user work. All user applications, both buil in, and install separately, execut as the one task of OS.
Singularity of Newton — the non-modal interface with discernment of hand-written text entering, figures and gestures. Printing letters support, hand-written and the compound are more their. Forms of figures too c be the most different. A certain successor of this technology are switched on in Mac OS X under a title of Inkwell.
Player of iPod quickly bec very popular. They worked on propriyetarny OS.
In the first iPods of 2001 of release in the tab of "About" the PortalPlayer were mention. It are the company who licensed musical a software for computers, players and home electronics engineering. Operating time of the company of Pixo us also. They specialized on development of insertions of mobile phones.
In an iPod «Digital Media Platform» of development of PortalPlayer were us. It are a complex of iron and an expand software, programs for synchronization with the computer, indirect extensions and other. The PP50xx chip with two kernels of ARM7TDMI were us.
Pixo giving toolkit for development of the user interface, and dr it immediately in Apple. They possess many libraries and the buil-in applications of type of directory.
Article of 2004 then ayfonov yet were not
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